Chronic Myeloid Leukemia - DR GHULAM YASEEN

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Overview

This type of leukemia is uncommon mostly, that develop in years and more slowly than acute myeloid leukemia. Chronic myeloid leukemia is also called chronic myelogenous leukemia or chronic granulocytic leukemia. It may affect mostly in older age, while In children its occurrence is rare.

Sign and symptoms

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia has following sign and symptoms

  • Complete loss of appetite
  • Frequent infections
  • Fever
  • Uneasiness with weakness
  • Pale skin
  • Excessive sweating during sleep
  • Weight loss
  • Easy bleeding

When to visit the doctor

Chronic myeloid leukemia may live unrevealed for many years in the first phase without any obvious sign and symptoms. Patients with chronic myeloid Leukemia have more chances of survival than Acute Myeloid Leukemia. So, it’s good to visit a doctor immediately if you experience persistent sign and symptoms of chronic myeloid leukemia.

Causes

Whenever there is a change in the genes, then you may experience blood disorders. In chronic myeloid leukemia, certain genes get mutations that develop leukemia in years. In human, cells develop and work dependent on the data contained in every cell’s chromosomes. Chromosomes are long parts of DNA in every cell. DNA is the substance that conveys our qualities, the guidelines for our cells to work. We resemble our parents since they are the source of our DNA. Our genes influence on our qualities because they carry the instruction for our cells to do every minor activity.

When a cell divides into two new cells, it keeps a copy of DNA into its chromosomes. This is a very convoluted procedure and errors can occur due to certain conditions.

There are some genes in DNA that control the cell division.

Oncogenes: these genes promote cell division and cell growth.

Tumer suppresser genes: these genes suppress cell division and cause cell death at the same time.

 

 

Formation of Philadelphia chromosome

Any changes in the DNA can turn on oncogenes and turn off tumor suppressor genes. Every human cell consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia occurs when part of chromosome 9 goes towards the part of 22 and part to 22 chromosomes to the chromososme 9.this whole process is called translocation and it makes chromosome 22 shorter in size than normal-scientists named it Philadelphia chromosome. In all cases of acute myeloid Leukemia, Philadelphia chromosome is found.

Philadelphia chromosome form new genes

This Philadelphia chromosome forms a new gene named, BCR-ABL gene by combining genes from chromosome 9  to genes from chromosome 22. This abnormal gene contains guidelines to produce a protein called tyrosine kinase, which promotes cancer cells to grow out of control.

Formation of diseased blood cells

Blood cells originate from bone marrow in the immature form normally. These stem cells mature and specialized into various types of blood cells and then circulate in the body like red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. This is the normal phenomenon of blood cells production. In CML this process doesn’t work properly. Tyrosine kinase that was formed by abnormal gene BCR-ABL causes to the production of too many white blood cells.most of the time these white blood cells contain abnormal Philadelphia chromosome. Diseased white blood cells don’t die like in normal conditions. These cells build ups in form crowds of diseased white blood cells in the normal cells and start damaging the bone marrow.

Risk factors

  • There are certain factors that may trigger chronic myeloid leukemia.
  • Exposure to radiations
  • Previous treatment for cancers
  • Being male
  • Old age

Complications of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Chronic myeloid leukemia can cause a number of complications.

  • Excessive bleeding: in normal condition whenever body bleeds, platelets form a clot at the site of bleeding.in chronic myeloid leukemia, due to the shortage of these blood cells, blood doesn’t clot that causes excessive bleeding. Which is harmful and cause anemia.
  • Pain: chronic myeloid leukemia can cause bone pain because bone marrow expands when diseased white blood cells build up in it.
  • Weakness: when diseased white blood cells collect in the healthy blood cells than the number of red blood cells also decreased. At this level sign and symptoms of anemia may develop to make an alarming sign to visit a doctor.
  • Splenomegaly(enlarged spleen): due to the extra production of blood cells, these blood cells are sent into the spleen for storage.this cause the swelling and enlargement of the spleen. Due to which sense of fullness develops even after taking a small number of meals.
  • Frequent infections: white blood cells fight against infections at normal circumstances. But, in chronic myeloid leukemia due to the formation of diseased white blood cells body become unable to fight against any sort of infection.
  • Death: if chronic myeloid leukemia cannot treat successfully on time, the patient can die.

 

Treatment at Saher Welfare Foundation

Here, at Saher Welfare Foundation, we treat every individual at the genetic level. Every individual seeks treatment on the basis of symptoms and health condition. We have a number of completely cured cases. See their stories here

 

 

 

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